Year: 2020 | Volume: 1 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 1-5
Recieved: December 14, 2019 Accepted: December 18, 2019 Published: January 19, 2020
Development of Computer Networks with a Target Token-rotation Time in the School Education
This study addresses the necessity of computer networks in the educational programs of schools for maximum access of students to the knowledge networks, particularly in the underdevelopment countries. The question is how the schools could build the computer networks to meet optimal results. The model suggested in this study realizes the goal of target token ring computer networks with a certain rotation time. The method of this study is both theoretical and practical. The introducing of the standard facilitates the networking protocols to provide knowledge transfer infrastructures. The networks as modern transponder devices will also assist the knowledge sharing about the information that students are interested in, such as Auto desk, Maya, and other applied softwares. The outcome of this study is helpful for the improvement of the educational quality in the schools through the simple target token-rotation time computer networks.
Computer Network, Graphs, Educational Programs, Token ring, Standards, Binary
TO CITE THIS ARTICLE
2020. Development of Computer Networks with a Target Token-rotation Time in the School Education. Journal of Computational Science and Information Technology, 1: 1-5
In the educational programs and schools computer networks play a crucial role to achieve optimal results. This study introduced the computer networks for both theoretical and practical perspectives. The study is necessary, when the individual computers, local networks and the ways they connect to a network in a wide spread area are under discussions everywhere. The main question is, how shall a computer network be built to meet optimal results in terms of better access of the students to the computer networks in the educational places. Consequently, the students will enjoy more knowledge, information and help in their studies. The question is also how would the computer networks become secured. The transmission of the knowledge and information between studentsvia an economic and reliable network is necessary. Generally, the fundamental purpose of a computer network is the exchange of data between two or more parties . The token ring technique, that this study introduced, is based on the use of small frame that circulates when all stations are idle. A station wishing to transmit must wait until it detects a token passing by. The principal advantage of the computer network with a token ring is the flexible control over access that it provides . The objective of this study is to encourage the schools in the underdeveloped countries to promote the building of the token ring based computer networks, because this is economic and requires simple technology.
2. TERMINOLOGY OF COMPUTER NETWORKS
Engineers use the languages of drawing, signs and laws to state and convey their ideas. Over the years, engineers and scientists have also come to realize that many of their problems are best described and analyzed mathematically. This requires that the things being studied, identified clearly and that the laws governing their behavior being stated precisely. Similarly, when one wants to represent the relationships between parts of one system, it seems very natural to realize that natural language is weak . The problem with using a natural language to illustrate a complex system of relationships is that the natural language is not rich enough to represent all the possible sides of the relationships without ambiguity. Therefore, using specific definitions, signs and graphs to analyze the connections inside a network system is vital. Therefore, it turns out that a good recognition of some definitions is the first step in the process of analyzing a network system. After having such knowledge, one will be able to follow the discussions concerning the networks. This knowledge makes foundation for a better educational computer network as well. Necessarily the next part of this article clarifies some terms and signs that are useful to construct a network generally and a computer network particularly.
Prior to any clarification of desired terms, let us start with an example of a transportation network. Imagine one underground train network map of a metropolitan. Suppose the map as a sample of a network graph. This system includes the rail links between stations. In this network every station is a node. Therefore, a network is an Objects and Connections are supposed to be a system. Here, some definitions are presented as Batten  has suggested as follows:
|•||Graph: A graph is a set of objects called nodes or vertices. On the map of the underground train network the stations and a set of objects called paths or links or edges made the network|
|•||Link: A link shows the connection between two contiguous vertices|
|•||Path: A path is a sequence of contiguous links in which no links have been used more than one|
|•||Cycle: A cycle is a sequence of edges in which the first and last vertex is the same one|
|•||Directed graph: A directed graph is a graph in which all the links have a direction and arrows|
|•||Degree of a node: If one looks at the nodes in a graph, and then the number of links attached is its degree. In a network with direct links one refers to the in-degree and the out-degree|
|•||Trees: A general tree is a graph that contains no cycles. A directed graph in which no node has two or more arrows coming into it is a tree. The Fig. 1 shows a simple tree|
|•||Traffic: Any mapping that assigns a number to one or more polyhedral is called traffic. Usually, the polyhedron is studied in sets and one speaks of a pattern of traffic values, or simply a pattern|
|•||Backcloth: A traffic is defined by mapping and the domains of those mappings are called the backcloth. A backcloth is made up of sets of polyhedral and their vertices|
|Fig. 1.||A general tree|
|•||Dynamic systems: Things which are apparently independent may be connected and the effects of events of one part of the system can be transmitted to other parts of the system , There are two levels of dynamism that shall be distinguished; the dynamics of flows and the dynamics of the links and infrastructures|
|•||Binary system: A system in which all numbers are written by only 0 and 1. This system is a fundamental arithmetic operation in a digital computer|
|•||Data bus width: The number of bits that can be transferred on the line parallel|
|•||Loop: A repeats of an instruction sequence aiming to achieve a determined result|
|•||Time sharing: A system that divides the time and possibilities of a computer between the users|
|•||Pocket switching: A technique that packs information and sends by the computer|
|•||MoDem: A modulator or demodulator is the computer information transformation joiner by the telephone network |
|•||Source place: A source place is defined as one through which tokens are either repeatedly generated or brought from the external world into the system|
|•||Sink place: A sink place is one which accommodates all dead tokens|
|•||Single color input multicolor output: A SIMO transition is defined as one which is connected to an input arc or a single color [4, 9]|
|•||Sink related transition (SRT): A SRT is a transition with the following characteristics:|
|•||It has an input arc from an input place|
|•||The color of the input and output arcs are different|
|•||The output place of the ordinary transition is a sink place|
|•||The input and output places of the SRT are of different colors|
3. PRACTICAL VIEWS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS IN THE SCHOOLS
Students need to discuss together and contribute to the educational programs in the schools interactively. They need to make digital contacts. If computers have to do some tasks like people, those needing to use their possibilities, to organize computers as a network, two essential sides shall be considered, Direst, a physical connection has to be made between those. Secondly, a common language has to be established in the system, by that the computers can understand each other [12, 5].
To set a number of computers physically connected together is not enough. The important task is to make an operating system as a common language. Regarding the different software and hardware in the market, creation of a computer network is a hard task . What shall be taken under consideration is not only to transfer information and programs from one student computer to others, but also more complicated is to interpret the data to knowledge of the embedded operating system.
The beginning of making computer networks dates back to the initial time sharing systems in the 1960s. Time sharing system question was an idea to simplify the computer networking. The efforts yielded a computer Research Projects Agency Networks. To develop a network of several stations called for ARPANET, Advanced ARPANET required transferring the information by the telephone networks. Therefore, the Modem has been developed. Another problem was the need for a wide bandwidth short delay time in switching systems. Pocket switching system was the solution for this problem. By this technique the information does not flow continuously; rather each computer has to place in a suitable node of a network. Then, the messages are converted to a series of data packages. A message by this technique can flow in the network, The message includes a trail of binary numbers of the main message plus some address data. The address data includes the destination and an ordering number. Such package of the information takes place in the network and goes to the destination. This action is done in a fraction of a second. This technique has some advantages in terms of selecting the most possible rapid route (Fig. 2).
In Fig. 2, Computer A is a sender computer that sends an address message to the net. The message changes to packages with different addresses.
Computer B is a node that transfers the packaged independently. The packages can move in different lines. The packages may receive to the destination out of turn.
Computer C is a node that arranges the packages to their primary order. Consequently the message receives to the destination as were sent.
The Fig. 3 shows a general plan concerning the local network with the Token ring technique.
As the Fig. 3 exhibits, the access to the network is controlled by a rotating bit sequence called for Token. To send a message in the net, nodes have to wait for this bit sequence (Token). When a station receives it eliminates it and replaces its own package. Then, immediately sends the Token to the net again. Token ring nets can work at least by 10 MB/sec capacities. Using the optic fiber technology raises the capacity to 100 MB/sec. further, the model of the Token ring topology is important to make a connection between the students faster .
In addition, the computer networks require standards. International standards organization, ISO, formalized a concept called “Open System Interaction” that divides a computer network into 7 layers [8, 2]. Every layer deals with one aspect of the networking and has its special protocol:
|•||Data link layer|
|Fig. 2.||A package switching system|
|Fig. 3.||A Token ring network|
The study discussed the necessity of the computer networks in the schools, particularly in the underdeveloped countries to meet better results in the educational programs. It introduced a target token-rotation time technique to build computer networks with it. This study mentioned that network language makes powerful connections between the nodes to understand each other and focused on the practical characteristics of the computer networks. Physical connection (phenotype connection) and software connection (genotype connection) have been analyzed in details. A medium access protocol used in Token ring technique was examined. The Token ring technique transmits the messages, files, documents, voices, films, etc. between the students in the networks securely. Both the theoretical and simulation results revealed the accuracy of the developed analytical model by this research in the building of the computer networks.
The outcomes of this study will assist the responsible factors to justify the promotion of computer networking in the schools to meet optimal educational outcomes in sake of the students’ success.
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